Theodore Moses Tobani (2 May 1855 - 12 December 1933), born Theodore Moses, was a composer and arranger of popular music. He was born in Hamburg, Germany, to Josef Moses, a cigar manufacturer, and Marianne Wede. He began violin studies at the age of three. His family moved to the United States, where he attended the Rivington Street School in New York City, but they returned to Europe when Theodore began to show significant musical proficiency. He was a solo violinist with a touring European company by the time he was 10. Later, he was a member of the Hamburg Stadttheater orchestra and studied piano and harmony with Julius von Berntuh, conductor of the Hamburg Philharmonic. 1971, the family returned to the United States and Tobani became first violin at Simpson's Theater in Philadelphia. From 1872 to 1874, he was first violin in the orchestra of Louisa Lane Drew's Arch Street Theater in Philadelphia. In 1875, he returned to New York City and played first violin at Wallack's Theater (later known as the Star Theater) until 1881. From 1881 until 1890, he played at the Grand Opera House and at the Bijou, Thalia, Daly's, and Palmer's theaters.
Tobani's compositions were first published by Lee and Walker in 1873. In 1882 he began his publishing relationship with Carl Fischer. He wrote an estimated 550 original works, including his most famous composition, "Hearts and Flowers," and made more than 4,500 arrangements. Tobani's publisher encouraged him to write songs under several pen names due to his prolificacy. Some of these pen names included Florence Reed, F. Wohanka, Andrew Herman, and variations of his own name. In 1895, he legally changed his name and added the surname Tobani.
Tobani was first married in 1885 to Rose Luster, with whom he had three children. After his split with Luster, he married Helene Kracht in 1890, with whom he had six children before her death in 1928. Aside from his musical career, he was also a licensed real estate agent and owned several properties in Long Island City, a neighborhood in Queens, New York. In 1933, Tobani died in his home in Jackson Heights, Queens and was buried at St. Michael's Cemetery in neighboring Astoria.