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AFL, CIO, and AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department records

 Collection 0044-LBR-RG9-001

This collection primarily documents AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department director Boris Shishkin's civil rights activities, particularly his participation on federal government committees. Shishkin was also the civil rights spokesperson for the AFL prior to the merger, when it had no civil rights department. Document types include correspondence, surveys, and press clippings.


  • 1943-1967

Conditions Governing Access

This collection is open to the public and must be used in the Special Collections reading room. Researchers must register and agree to copyright and privacy laws before using this collection.

From December 1, 2021 through September 30, 2022, significant sections of this collection will be closed to staff and researchers while the materials are being digitized. This is not indicated at the series or folder level; please contact us at for more information.

Conditions Governing Use

Photocopies or digital surrogates may be provided in accordance with Special Collections and University Archives duplication policy.

Copyright resides with the creators of the documents or their heirs unless otherwise specified. It is the researcher's responsibility to secure permission to publish materials from the appropriate copyright holder.

Archival materials may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal and/or state right to privacy laws or other regulations. While we make a good faith effort to identify and remove such materials, some may be missed during our processing. If a researcher finds sensitive personal information in a collection, please bring it to the attention of the reading room staff.


10.50 Linear Feet

Scope and Contents

When the AFL and the CIO merged in 1955, the new organization created a Civil Rights Department with Bois Shishkin of the AFL appointed as director. James B. Carey of the CIO became chairman of the AFL-CIO's Civil Rights Committee.

In 1942 the CIO established a Committee to Abolish Discrimination (renamed the Civil Rights Committee in 1953). It counseled and advised internationals and locals on questions of racial policies, worked with government agencies to push antidiscrimination legislation, and attempted to set up committees to abolish racial discrimination in industrial union councils of the CIO.

Before the merger, the AFL produced a less structured system than the CIO for overseeing civil rights issues in its affiliated unions. Although a resolution was introduced at the 1952 AFL convention calling for a department of civil rights, none was established until the merger. To fill the void, Shishkin, the AFL's chief economist, served throughout the 1940s and early 1950s as spokesperson and specialist in the area of civil rights. Long active in anti-housing discrimination, Shishkin produced fact sheets, pamphlets and other materials on the problems of race discrimination. Additional AFL staff work included guidance to the affiliated unions in negotiating anti-discrimination clauses in their collective bargaining contracts. Both the AFL and the CIO participated in presidential commissions looking into racial discrimination, and the AFL-CIO continued this practice after the merger.

This collection represents a critical time period for civil rights and labor relations and activities of the AFL, CIO, and AFL-CIO. The bulk of this collection documents Russian immigrant Boris Shishkin's civil rights activities, particularly his participation on federal government committees such as the Fair Employment Practice Committee, President's Committee on Government Contracts, the President's Committee on Government Employment Policy, the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities, the League for Industrial Democracy, and Workers Defense League. Another important area covered by this collection is the fact-finding work done by the Jewish Labor Committee in the mid-1950s on minorities and Southern labor unions. Major topics include race relations, discrimination policy, fair labor practices, and integration of organizations and schools. Materials include correspondence, reports, clippings, memos, surveys, questionnaires, minutes, and proceedings.

Biographical / Historical

Immediately after the AFL-CIO’s first constitutional convention in December 1955, the Executive Council established a Civil Rights Department to serve the constitutionally-mandated Committee on Civil Rights, which was “vested with the duty and responsibility to assist the Executive Council to bring about at the earliest possible date the effective implementation of the principle stated in this constitution of non-discrimination in accordance with the provisions of this constitution."(1) This principle directs the federation "to encourage all workers without regard to race, creed, color, national origin or ancestry to share equally in the full benefits of union organization.”(2)

Despite inequities present in local and international unions, the AFL lacked both a committee and a department devoted exclusively to civil rights issues until 1952. Boris Shishkin, the chief economist of the federation, served as the spokesperson on civil rights issues until then. In 1942, the CIO established a Committee to Abolish Racial Discrimination (renamed the Civil Rights Committee in 1953). Its only chair was James B. Carey. Several members of that committee later served on the AFL-CIO Civil Rights Committee, of which Carey was the first chair. Shishkin became the first director of the new AFL-CIO Department of Civil Rights.

One of the earliest activities of the Civil Rights Department was the investigation of complaints of discrimination in employment.(3) The department became active in the issues of fair employment practices, discrimination in housing, and school desegregation, and it began working directly with affiliated unions and state and local central bodies on civil rights issues. The documented experiences include discrimination of race, color, gender, religion, and disability, among others. At its August 29, 1956 meeting, the Executive Council adopted a Civil Rights Committee report that requested the creation of a subcommittee to facilitate the processing of complaints. This Subcommittee on Complaints (later Subcommittee on Compliance) first met November 20th. There is little detailed information on the conciliation of most cases.

A major function of the department has been the dissemination of information, publishing pamphlets and holding conferences covering a variety of civil rights topics. In the 1960s, the department became a liaison between the labor movement and various federal agencies, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Department of Labor, and the Department of Justice. It established ties with the A. Philip Randolph Institute and several independent civil rights organizations, such as the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the National Urban League (NUL). In the late 1960 and early 1970s, it worked with affiliates and with the AFL-CIO Building Trades Department and the Human Resources Development Institute (HRDI) to establish affirmative action programs for recruiting and preparing young people of color for apprenticeships and jobs in the skilled trades. "Operation outreach" was one such program.

This information was compiled and written by archivists at the George Meany Memorial Archives at the National Labor College.

1. Constitution of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (1955), Article XIII, Section l (b).

2. Ibid., Article II, Section 4.

3. This policy was contained in a resolution on civil rights passed at the First Constitutional Convention. AFL-CIO, Report of the first Constitutional Convention. Proceedings (1955, pp. 109-110).

Staff List

  1. 1955-1964: Boris Shishkin, Director
  2. late 1950s: George L. P. Weaver, Assistant Director
  3. late 1950s: Theodore E. Brown, Assistant Director
  4. 1959-1964: Donald Slaiman, Assistant Director
  5. 1961-1965: Walter G. Davis, Assistant Director
  6. 1964-1974: Donald Slaiman, Director
  7. 1964-1974: William Pollard, Staff Representative
  8. 1965-1985: E. T. Kehrer, Southern Area Director
  9. 1967-1970: Robert McGlotten, Staff Representative
  10. 1960s-1970s: Doris Gibson (Hardesty), Administrative Assistant
  11. 1960s-1970s: Santo J. Ruiz, Staff Representative
  12. mid-1960s: Norman Hill, Staff Representative
  13. 1974-1986: William Pollard, Director
  14. mid-1970s: Leonard J. Lewis, Staff Representative
  15. 1976-1996: Cynthia McCaughan, Staff Representative and Coordinator of Women's Activities
  16. 1977-1986: Richard Womack, Staff Representative
  17. 1986-2003: Richard Womack, Director
  18. 1994-1996: Susana Gomez, Staff for Hispanic Issues
  19. 1995-1996: Patricia Osborne, Secretary to Director
  20. Date unknown: Victor Kerszenwejg, Staff Representative


  1. AFGE: American Federation of Government Employees
  2. AFL-CIO: American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations
  3. AFSCME: American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees
  4. AIFLD: American Institute for Free Labor Development
  5. APRI: A. Philip Randolph Institute
  6. BCTD: Building and Construction Trades Department
  7. BRAC: Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees
  8. CLUW: Coalition of Labor Union Women
  9. COPE: Committee on Political Education
  10. CORE: Congress of Racial Equality
  11. CRD: Civil Rights Department
  12. CWA: Communications Workers of America
  13. ERA: Equal Rights Amendment
  14. HRDI: Human Resources Development Institute
  15. IBEW: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
  16. IRRA: Industrial Relations Research Association
  17. LCCR: Leadership Conference on Civil Rights
  18. LCLAA: Labor Council for Latin American Advancement
  19. LEAP: Labor Education Advancement Program
  20. NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  21. NAIRO: National Association of lntergroup Relations Officials
  22. NASSA: National Association of Spanish Speaking Americans
  23. NCCJ: National Conference of Christians and Jews
  24. NEA: National Education Association
  25. NTULC: Negro Trade Union Leadership Council
  26. NUL: National Urban League
  27. OIC: Opportunities Industrialization Centers
  28. OPEIU: Office and Professional Employees International Union
  29. RTP: Recruitment and Training Program
  30. SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  31. SOEH: Society for Occupational and Environmental Health
  32. SPACE: Council of AFL-CIO Unions for Scientific, Professional and Cultural Employees
  33. USWA: United Steelworkers of America

Organization of the Collection

This collection is organized into three series:

Series 1
Subject Files, 1943-1965
Series 2
Chronological Files, 1961-1967
Series 3
Near Print Materials, 1948-1960

Custodial History

The AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department transferred these records to the George Meany Memorial Archives in 1982. The George Meany Memorial Archives transferred these records as part of a major transfer of their archive and library holdings to the University of Maryland Libraries in 2013.

Related Materials

AFL, CIO, and AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department, Discrimination Case Files, 1947-1984 (0054-LBR-RG9-002)

AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department records, 1946-2000 (0068-LBR-RG9-003)

AFL and AFL-CIO Research Department, Boris Shishkin papers: Series 2 contains a 249 page unpublished manuscript by Boris Shishkin, "Organized Labor and the Negro"

The Library of Congress holds the NAACP records, including the Herbert Hill papers, 1869-2004, who was their labor secretary.

Processing Information

Bob Reynolds and Lee Sayrs at the George Meany Memorial Archives initially processed these records in 1992 and 1996. The University of Maryland Libraries received the records and the finding aid in 2013. In 2017, Bria Parker migrated the information contained in this finding aid from the George Meany Memorial Archives' Eloquent system. All migrated finding aids have been cleaned using OpenRefine software and ingested into ArchivesSpace using programmatic scripts created in Python. Upon ingest, Rebecca Thayer reviewed and made minor revisions to this finding aid. Revisions include changes to biographical/historical notes, scope and content notes, and the creation of new collection numbers. Rebecca Thayer also enhanced custodial histories and re-wrote collection titles to better conform to archival standards.

In 2022, as part of a unit-wide effort to begin the work of consciously editing archival description, the following revisions were made to this finding aid by Jennifer G. Eidson: The department history was moved into the Biographical/Historical notes from an external document, the department staff list and a list of abbreviations were added. The Scope and Content Note at the collection level, and for Series 1, was revised. Six folder titles were revised out of eleven specifically flagged for review. The Related Material note, the Processing Information Note, and Revision Notes were revised as well.

Guide to the AFL, CIO, and AFL-CIO Civil Rights Department records
Finding aid created by Bob Reynolds at the George Meany Memorial Archives.
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Script of description
Code for undetermined script
Language of description note
Finding aid written in English.

Revision Statements

  • 1996: Materials redescribed by Lee Sayrs at the George Meany Memorial AFL-CIO Archives.
  • 2018-01-22: Revisions and updates made post-ArchivesSpace migration by Rebecca Thayer. Please see the processing note for more detailed information.
  • 2022-09-16: Biographical/Historical Note moved from external document into finding aid, staff list and list of abbreviations were added as well. A Preferred Citation Note was added, and the Related Materials Note, the Processing Information Note, Scope and Content Notes, and several folder titles were revised for typos and content. Revisions and updates made by Jennifer G. Eidson.

Library Details

Part of the Special Collections and University Archives

University of Maryland Libraries
Hornbake Library
4130 Campus Drive
College Park Maryland 20742