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Point Lookout Civil War collection

 Collection 0372-MDHC
The largest prison camp run by the Union during the Civil War, Point Lookout served not only as a prisoner of war camp, but also as a hospital for both Union and Confederate soldiers between 1862 and 1865. The prison camp at Point Lookout was well-known for its crowded and poor living conditions. The collection consists of correspondence, photographs, and official documents from ordinary Union and Confederate soldiers who were stationed, treated, or imprisoned at Point Lookout, as well as other official records and documents written by officers and commanders in camp. There are also original copies of the Hammond Gazette, the newspaper for Hammond Hospital, and assorted newspaper clippings that document camp life and other news from the area during the Civil War.

Dates

  • 1861-1865 and undated
  • Majority of material found within 1861-1922

Use and Access to Collection

This collection is open for research.

Extent

0.50 Linear Feet

Scope and Content of Collection

The Point Lookout Collection covers the period from 1861 to 1922; the bulk of the materials date from 1861 to 1865. The collection consists of both personal and official papers including letters, photographs, diaries, newspapers, clippings, passes, and other official government documents related to the operations of the Hammond Hospital and the prison, and the lives of ordinary soldiers – both Union and Confederate – at Point Lookout.

Administrative History

Point Lookout is located at the southern end of the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In 1862, a hospital was established for the Union under the direction of Captain L.C. Edwards, Assistant Quartermaster. It was called Hammond Hospital and completed in 1863. The hospital could hold 1400 patients. Patients arrived to the hospital aboard ships. Shortly after the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, the federal government set up a prisoner of war camp nearby and Hammond Hospital also began treating sick and injured Confederate prisoners. Originally designed to hold 10,000 men, the camp housed men in old tents instead of in permanent barracks or other structures. The camp became extremely overcrowded and by June 1864 there were over 20,000 prisoners crowded into a space of about 1,000 square feet. The camp was known for its poor living conditions, especially in 1864 and 1865, and about 4,000 of the total 50,000 prisoners incarcerated in camp died (1). Southern Maryland was an area with strong Southern sympathies, further magnifying tensions in camp. Union soldiers worried about this issue, especially after U.S. Colored Troops were stationed there. The last prisoners were released from Point Lookout in July 1865 (2).

Endnotes: 1. National Park Service. "Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery Ridge, Maryland." http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/national_cemeteries/maryland/point_lookout_confederate_cemetery.html. Last accessed: October 1, 2015. 2. For more see Blondo, Richard A. “A View of Point Lookout Prison Camp for Confederates." OAH Magazine of History, vol. 8, No. 1, The Civil War (Fall, 1993), pp. 30-36.

Arrangement

This collection is organized as eleven series.
Series 1
E.W. Walton
Series 2
Ephraim L. German
Series 3
John H. Daniels
Series 4
W.P.C. Thomas
Series 5
N.K. Tracy
Series 6
John Herbert Williams
Series 7
Gilman Marston
Series 8
Joab N. Patterson
Series 9
Other Individuals
Series 10
Other Official Documents
Series 11
Hammond Gazette

Custodial History and Acquisition Information

Collection was purchased in August 2014 from Michael J. Osborne Books. This purchase was made possible with generous funding from the Gordon S. Mackenzie Estate.

Related Material

The following are related collections that are located in the Special Collections and University Archives. Please contact the curator for additional assistance in locating related subject material, if necessary.

• Beitzell, Edwin Warfield. Point Lookout Prison Camp for Confederates. Abell, Md., 1972. Maryland Folio E616.L8 B45 • Lanier, Sidney. The Story of a Proverb: A Fairy Tale for Grown People. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1879. Maryland Rare Stacks PS2207.S76 1879 • Jones, Charles W. In Prison at Point Lookout. Martinsville, Bulletin Print & Publishing Co., undated. Maryland Stacks E616.L8 J7 • Maryland Manuscripts Collection, See Series 10: General Correspondence and Series 15: Military Records • Omenhausser, John Jacob. Sketchbook, 1864-1865. Maryland Manuscripts Collection MDMS 1513. Available via Digital Collections at the following link: http://hdl.handle.net/1903.1/4939 • Omenhausser, John Jacob. “I am Busy Drawing Pictures:" The Civil War Art and Letters of Private John Jacob Omenhausser, CSA. Edited by Ross Kimmel and Michael P. Musick. Annapolis: Friends of the Maryland State Archives, 2014. Maryland Stacks E468.7.O55 2014.

Processing Information

Materials were sorted into eleven series based on the individual creators of the documents. All materials were placed in acid-free folders and in acid-free boxes.
Title
Guide to the Point Lookout Civil War collection
Status
Completed
Author
This collection was processed by Tyler Stump.
Date
2015-02-01
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
English
Script of description
Code for undetermined script
Language of description note
Finding aid written in English.

Library Details

Part of the Special Collections and University Archives

Contact:
University of Maryland Libraries
Hornbake Library
4130 Campus Drive
College Park Maryland 20742
301-405-9212